By Esa Itkonen
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Additional info for Analogy as Structure and Process: Approaches in Linguistics, Cognitive Psychology and Philosophy of Science (Human Cognitive Processing, Volume 14)
Let us call it ‘induction-1’. There is association by contiguity between Aa and Ea, and between Ab and Eb, whereas there is association by similarity between Aa and Ab, and between Ea and Eb. At the next step, having observed a couple of edible apples, the child infers the law ‘All apples are edible’. 14. Let us call this inference ‘induction-2’. According to the received view, it is on the basis of induction-2 that we learn that fire is hot and water is wet and so on, or more generally, that we acquire the lawlike knowledge about the observable world.
Moreover, that there indeed obtains a ‘copying’ relation between man and God, is an assumption that many are willing to assert. Let us apply our four-way taxonomy to linguistics. The cross-linguistic analogy that underlies typological research (cf. 20 (1164-1205) Analogy as Structure and Process 1, with the qualification that, at the moment when they become known, newly discovered languages have the same, although less drastic, relation to betterknown languages as sound waves have to water waves in Type 2.
Outside’, ‘up vs. down’, and ‘front vs. back’ are expressed by means of units referring to the human body (cf. Heine et al. 1991: Ch. 5). e. in letting B acquire the properties of A. e. at t-1. The ambivalence of the metaphorical process could be clarified by noting that the target (= B) is temporally primary, as shown by implicit mapping, while the source (= A) is logically primary, as shown by explicit mapping. And then there must be at t-4 some sort of confirmation of the proposed solution. Thus, metaphorically speaking, there are three separate ‘movements’ between A and B.
Analogy as Structure and Process: Approaches in Linguistics, Cognitive Psychology and Philosophy of Science (Human Cognitive Processing, Volume 14) by Esa Itkonen