By Howard Markel
Acclaimed scientific historian Howard Markel lines the careers of 2 outstanding younger doctors--Sigmund Freud, neurologist, and William Halsted, surgeon--showing how their robust addictions to cocaine formed their huge, immense contributions to psychology and medicine.
When Freud and Halsted started their experiments with cocaine within the Eighties, neither they, nor their colleagues, had any inspiration of the drug's strength to dominate and endanger their lives. An Anatomy of Addiction tells the tragic and heroic tale of every guy, by chance struck down in his leading via an insidious illness: tragic end result of the time, relationships, and healthiness cocaine pressured every one to squander; heroic within the excessive conflict each one guy waged to beat his illness. Markel writes of the actual and emotional harm because of the then-heralded ask yourself drug, and the way each one guy finally replaced the realm despite it--or due to it. One grew to become the daddy of psychoanalysis; the opposite, of contemporary surgical procedure. this is the complete tale, lengthy ignored, instructed in its wealthy old context.
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Extra resources for An Anatomy of Addiction: Sigmund Freud, William Halsted, and the Miracle Drug, Cocaine
Shopkeeping was another relatively low-status profession filled mainly by the middle class. In Dickens’s time, the typical shop was small and carried just one or two types of items; the large department store, selling a variety of different goods, was still in the future. In early Victorian days, shops were open long hours, often from six o’clock in the morning till 54 nine o’clock at night; many shop owners slept in rooms above the store. Shopkeepers in the mid-1800s took on a more active role in their stores than they do today.
Too often they lived on the edge of disaster. Their stomachs never quite full, their possessions few, their homes decrepit, and the dreaded specter of the workhouse looming over them at all times, it would have been understandable if the poor of the mid-1800s had simply given up. A few, to be sure, did exactly that, turning to thievery and other crimes, sinking into a state of almost perpetual drunkenness, or committing suicide by throwing themselves into the nearest body of water. What is surprising, perhaps, is that so many did none of these things.
Whatever the weather, the cows still had to be milked and the crops tended. After hours and days of repetitive tasks, farmers’ fingers became stiff and their backs ached; many became chronically ill. And the hours were unbearably long. “[I worked] fourteen hours a day in the fields,” recalled a farm worker of the 1850s. ”34 To make matters worse, it was difficult to make a decent 44 living as a farmer. Farmers were at the mercy of the weather, insect pests that tried to eat their crops, and the price of grain.
An Anatomy of Addiction: Sigmund Freud, William Halsted, and the Miracle Drug, Cocaine by Howard Markel