By Peter J. Holloway (auth.), Kevin E. Percy, J. Neil Cape, Richard Jagels, Caroline J. Simpson (eds.)
Plant leaves are lined by way of a skinny, lipoidal, non-living membrane referred to as the cuticle. Forming the interface among vegetation and the atmospheric surroundings, it offers a good barrier to pollutant access.
The ebook offers a entire evaluate of air pollutant results at the cuticle and covers the next thematic parts: - Cuticular physicochemical features, physiological, regulatory, and protecting roles. - results, mechanisms, and outcomes of air pollutant interplay with leaf cuticles. - Non-anthropogenic and environmental affects at the cuticle and capability of the cuticle for biomonitoring and significant degrees mapping. - New advancements in experimental technique and analytical techniques.
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Extra resources for Air Pollutants and the Leaf Cuticle
Data come from investigations with isolated or non-isolated astomatous cuticles (leaves and fruits) or from transpiration-decline experiments (needles), and represent means. 44 from weight-loss curves, where stomatal contributions could not safely be excluded, viz. minimum overall conductances. 5 m s-1) were included in Table 1, indicating that relatively good stomatal closure had taken place. Where different studies reported widely different values, only the lowest ones were used. The three conifer species with all-reticulate cuticles showed slightly or much higher minimum overall conductances than the three species with a non-reticulate outer layer.
30 Whereas the physical environment inside the leaf shares some similarities with that found in the boundary layer, the critical difference is a physiologically and biochemically dynamic cell surface that can rapidly assimilate many pollutant gases. Leaf physiology controls the development of a steady-state rate of pollutant gas uptake through the ability to deplete the partial pressure of the gas in a liquid media via metabolism or reactivity with cellular compounds. One of the consequences of the stagnant layer within the leaf interior and the attendant role of molecular processes is that the fate of pollutant gases on the leaf surface and within the intercellular space will differ depending on the physiochemical properties of the gas (Table 2).
For example, 03 decomposition on the plasmalemma and cell wall is reported by Laisk et al. (1989) and attributed to ascorbic acid scavenging in the cell wall (Chameides, 1989). More recently, 03 scavenging has been extended to the gas-phase and attributed to the presence of reactive hydrocarbons (Tingey and Taylor, 1982; Sharkey and Loreto, 1993) or nitric oxide. The second limitation is the apparent non-zero internal partial pressures of some pollutants due to physiological activity and/or re-emission (Tingey and Taylor, 1982).
Air Pollutants and the Leaf Cuticle by Peter J. Holloway (auth.), Kevin E. Percy, J. Neil Cape, Richard Jagels, Caroline J. Simpson (eds.)