By Hala Zreiqat, Colin R. Dunstan, Vicki Rosen
Reviewing exhaustively the present state-of-the-art of tissue engineering thoughts for regenerating bones and joints by utilizing biomaterials, progress elements and stem cells, besides an research of the interactions among biomaterials, bone cells, progress elements and further stem cells and the way jointly skeletal tissues could be optimised, this e-book serves to spotlight the significance of biomaterials composition, floor topography, architectural and mechanical houses in supplying aid for tissue regeneration.
Maximizing reader insights into the significance of the interaction of those attributes with bone cells (osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts) and cartilage cells (chondrocytes), this e-book additionally offers a close reference as to how key signalling pathways are activated. The contribution of progress components to force tissue regeneration and stem cellphone recruitment is mentioned in addition to a evaluate the aptitude and demanding situations of grownup or embryonic mesenchymal stem cells to additional improve the formation of latest bone and cartilage tissues.
This booklet serves to illustrate the interconnectedness of biomaterials, bone/cartilage cells, progress elements and stem cells in opting for the regenerative approach and hence the scientific outcome.
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Extra resources for A Tissue Regeneration Approach to Bone and Cartilage Repair
2001; Wergedal et al. 2003). LRP5 is a co-receptor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and sclerostin is a negative regulator of LRP5 signaling (Ke et al. 2012). A recombinant form of parathyroid hormone (PTH), designated Teriparatide or Forteo, is an FDA approved anabolic agent which promotes bone formation in patients with osteoporosis (Tsai et al. 2013). Recent studies suggest that the molecular mechanism of PTH action in bone formation may be through inhibition of Sost and Dkk1 expression in osteocytes and osteoblasts (Keller and Kneissel 2005; Bellido et al.
2007; Leupin et al. 2007; Guo et al. 2010). Therapeutic PTH is given as a daily subcutaneous injection, and its use is limited to 2 years duration due to observations of induction of osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma in longterm rodent studies. To better manage osteoporosis and other bone loss-associated diseases, additional bone anabolic agents are needed. Two humanized monoclonal antibodies targeting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, sclerostin, and Dkk1 antibodies (Scl-Ab and Dkk1-Ab), have been developed in recent years.
M407810200 Luu HH, Song WX, Luo X, Manning D, Luo J, Deng ZL, Sharff KA, Montag AG, Haydon RC, He TC (2007) Distinct roles of bone morphogenetic proteins in osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. J Orthop Res: Off Publ Orthop Res Soc 25(5):665–677. 20359 Matsumoto T, Cooper GM, Gharaibeh B, Meszaros LB, Li G, Usas A, Fu FH, Huard J (2009) Cartilage repair in a rat model of osteoarthritis through intraarticular transplantation of muscle-derived stem cells expressing bone morphogenetic protein 4 and soluble Flt-1.
A Tissue Regeneration Approach to Bone and Cartilage Repair by Hala Zreiqat, Colin R. Dunstan, Vicki Rosen